Did you Know?

---The metric system was first proposed in 1791. It was adopted by the French revolutionary assembly in 1795, and the first metric standards (a standard meter bar and kilogram bar) were adopted in 1799. There was considerable resistance to the system at first, and its use was not made compulsory in France until 1837.

---As of the end of FY 2017, the USAF's 119 F-35s had only a 55% Mission Capable rate. Those aircraft that are worse are the B-1, B-2 and F-22.

---Cats purr at a frequency of 20-140 Hz.

--- Since 1990, the U.S. Air Force fighter inventory has been cut in half and current Air Force fighter aircraft are, on average, more than 25 years old.

---An oligarchy is a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution. For example, Russia is frequently considered an oligarchy because it is ruled by the very wealthy.

---Spanning 3,365 miles (5,415 km), US route 20 is the longest road in the United States

---The number of people living in abject poverty has fallen by approximately 137,000 a day for the last 25 years.

---In the early 1980s a Canadian couple, Bill and Barbara Curtis were convinced that a nuclear war was imminent and wanted to choose the safest place in the world to live. They researched the problem carefully and finally, late in 1981, they moved with their children, Timmy and Annette, to their chosen refuge, the Falkland Islands, where they felt sure they would be safe from war. Argentine troops invaded just 6 months later.

---Olives are soaked in lye to remove the bitter taste of raw olives.

---A total of 126 squadrons served with Bomber Command. Of these, 32 of these were officially non-British units: 15 RCAF squadrons, eight RAAF squadrons, four Polish squadrons, two French squadrons, two RNZAF/"New Zealand" squadrons, and one Czechoslovakian squadron.

---Scientists came up with a semi conclusive study that suggests we have 7 people in this world who look exactly like us. The chances of us meeting one of them is 1 in 87,500 or 0.00001143%.

---The two nations with their capital cities the closest to each other are Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 20 km.

---No matter where you stand on the matter, all travelers can agree that more pitch and fewer seats in the aircraft is better. American Airlines is doing the opposite by installing more seats and reducing legroom in its 737-800s. The first AA 172-seat Boeing 737-800 has just entered service, with 12 more seats than the other 737-800s in the fleet. The aircraft registered as N979AN returned to Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) from AA’s maintenance base in Tulsa (TUL) on Sunday May 13, ready to start flying revenue services after cabin modifications.

---When John Lennon and Paul McCarthy started writing songs, they could neither read or write music. They simply memorized the songs. Later their work was transcribed by George Martin.

---Homeopathic medicine was made up by one man, a guy named Samuel Hahnemann. In the late 1700s, he came up with the idea that “like cures like”—that is, any chemical that caused difficulty breathing would cure diseases that make it hard to breathe, or any chemical that causes hives would cure hives. He rejected the germ theory of disease. To him, disease is not caused by viruses or bacteria, it’s caused by substances he called “miasms,” strange cloud-like things that drift through your body. He also believed that the more you dilute something, the stronger it gets, because when you add water to something the water absorbs the “essence” of it. 

---Tokyo, by definition, is a prefecture/state only. There is no such a thing called Tokyo City, although its metropolitan nature makes it look like one. Tokyo prefecture itself comprises 23 wards, 26 cities, 1 commandery, 3 towns, and 1 village, non of them is called "Tokyo".

---As soon as you have bought a diamond, it is worth up to 70% less. Imagine you’ve just bought  a diamond for £5,000 – as soon as you have taken it out of the shop its worth has fallen to £2,000 or less. This is because of the tremendous mark-up made on each stone and the fact that diamonds aren’t nearly as rare as we have been led to believe. In addition, the jeweller has no incentive to buy back your diamond if they are supplied with their diamonds on a consignment basis. In black and white terms, ordinary mined diamonds have absolutely no investment value whatsoever. The valuation you receive is for insurance purposes only. One reason for this is that the deBeers company has basically a monopoly on diamonds so not only determines how many are to be released but sets the prices as well.

---Ford Motor Company will no longer build sedans as of the 2019 model year. With the exception of the Mustang, their full line will be trucks and SUVs.

---Yonge Street in Ontario, Canada is the longest in the world. It runs 86Km/53 mi from the shores of Lake Ontario in Toronto to Barrie without becoming a highway.

---About 80 percent of the jobs in the military are non-combat occupations.

---Between 1869 and 1898, the average size of the US Army was 25,000 officers and men.

---Probably the biggest city in the world in terms of area is Anchorage Alaska at over 1700 square miles.

---Blue Light, which can shut down your brain’s production of the natural sleep hormone melatonin is prevalent in TV and Smart Phone screens. So a smart person will avoid these before sleep.

---Kazakhstan is the world's largest land-locked country.

---There are more journalists imprisoned in Turkey than any other nation in the world.

---During the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese Val dive bombers tried to land on the USS Lexington. It was dusk and the Lexington was closer to the Shokaku than the Japanese realized. All the Japanese planes survived the incident, though the CAP Wildcats were fired upon when they tried to land.

---Because the British torched Washington DC during the War of 1812, when James Monroe was inaugurated in 1817, there weren’t any buildings left in D.C. that could host the inauguration. So, the decision was made to hold it on the steps of the Capitol. That is why it is held outside in January.

---No band has sold more concert tickets than the Rolling Stones and probably never will. Their totals are in the tens of millions.

---During WW2 British Flight Sergeant Nicholas Stephen Alkemade jumped from a burning plane, fell 18,000 feet without a parachute, and suffered only a sprained leg. He fell through the springy outer tips of a pine tree, which buoyed him up without hurting him, and then landed in deep snow.

---On-duty police officers shoot and kill about 1,000 people each year in the United States, according to an analysis by Philip Stinson, an associate professor of criminal justice at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. 

---The half life of Vitamin D in your body is about 14–30 days, so by December there is not much left - as such it is worth considering taking Vitamin D supplements from December until April. For more on how much Vitamin D is enough, visit https://vitamindwiki.com/No+%E2%80%93+10+minutes+per+day+of+sun-UVB+is+NOT+enough

---A typical sumo wrestler eats a daily diet of 20,000 calories

---1,500km² of the original 5,000km² Zuider Zee has been reclaimed.

---Most clumping kitty litter is made from granulated bentonite clay which clumps together when wet and forms a solid mass separate from the other litter in the box. This solid clumped material can be scooped out and disposed of without changing the entire contents of the litter box.

---There is a point in the middle of the Pacific Ocean so far from land that it’s likely the closest humans to it are aboard the International Space Station. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/point-ocean-closest-human-astronaut/

---If you lose a fingernail, it will take four to six months to regrow completely. Toenails take a year to a year and a half to grow from cuticle to tip.

---Most will say that Gabriel Voisin invented the first anti-lock brakes in 1929 to solve the problem airplanes had with braking, as it is almost impossible to threshold brake on an aircraft. However, some also point to  J.E. Francis who, in 1908,  introduced his 'Slip Prevention Regulator for Rail Vehicles'.

---The island of Niʻihau in the state of Hawaii is privately owned, as is 97% of Lanai.

---The country most likely to induct rail gun onto warships in the near future (1–5years) is China, because they have achieved a breakthrough by using medium voltage direct current, allowing an energy burst of up to 100 Megajoule, the equivalent heat energy released by a small city, and successful miniaturization of the rail gun housing till small enough to mount onto medium size surface vessels such as destroyers.  Ref:  http://www.newsweek.com/china-says-building-electromagnetic-railgun-seen-leaked-warship-photos-stunned-844932?amp=1&utm_source=quora

---The densest naturally occurring element is osmium.

---In 2015, more people were killed by actions while taking a selfie than by shark attacks.

---Human saliva has a boiling point three times that of water.

---Distracted driving continues to be the number one leading cause of car accidents in America. Talking on the phone, texting, eating, reading, grooming, and talking are just some of the ways drivers get distracted behind the wheel.

---Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral invented his first touch fastener when, in 1941, he went for a walk in the woods and wondered why Burdock seeds cling to his coat and dog. Velcro, a combination of the words "velvet" and "crochet," was formally patented it in 1955. Though the first Velcro was made out of cotton, de Mestral soon discovered that nylon worked best because it didn't wear with use.

---When you put a container of hot water and an equal container of cold water into a freezer, the hot water freezes first.

---According to Toyota, The process of making a car can be roughly divided into stamping, welding, painting, assembly and inspections, which takes about 17-18 hours in total.

---A 2012 Bureau of Land Management memo estimated that between 500,000 and 1 million birds die in US oil fields each year. Specifically those causes are :Open Pits and Tanks Containing Freestanding Liquids;Chemical Tank Secondary Containment; Various Pit, Tank, and Trench Entrapment Hazards;Exhaust Stacks; and Wire Exclosure Fences for Well Pads or Production Facilities and Associated Rights-of-way. https://www.blm.gov/policy/im-2013-033

---The decline of US steel manufacturing had nothing to do with unfair trade practices, but an unwillingness by steel companies to spend the money to switch to lower cost and more efficient basic-oxygen furnaces. LINK For more on the process, visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_oxygen_steelmaking To see this in respect to US steel making, visit this link.

---In 1886, sailors on a German barque called Paula tossed a gin bottle with a message inside into waters hundreds of miles off the western coast of Australia. One hundred and thirty-one years later, a Perth resident stumbled upon the bottle on Australia's Wedge Island. It's believed to be the oldest-known message in a bottle, in terms of the amount of time that has passed between when it was written and when it was found. Before this discovery, Guinness World Records said that the oldest was 108 years old, found in Germany in 2015.

---True addiction is characterized by compulsive behavior (that’s the “you can’t stop doing it” part), physical dependence, and withdrawal on cessation of the addiction.

---Each twilight phase is defined by the solar elevation angle, which is the position of the Sun in relation to the horizon. During nautical twilight, the geometric center of the Sun's disk is between 6 and 12 degrees below the horizon. In clear weather conditions, the horizon is faintly visible during this twilight phase. Many of the brighter stars can also be seen, making it possible to use the position of the stars in relation to the horizon to navigate at sea. This is why it is called nautical twilight.

---Twilight is the time between day and night when the Sun is below the horizon but its rays still light up the sky.

---About 15% of those living in the United States are 6 feet tall or more.

---Robert Wadlow, the Alton giant, was the world's tallest person at 8'11'' and still growing when he died at age 22.

---The main reason why the Eastern Roman Empire lasted for nearly 1000 years after the fall of the west is because it was simply impossible to breach the walls of Constantinople until the advent of gunpowder artillery.

---Alexander the Great  invented a spying technique still used today: he had his soldiers write letters home, which he then intercepted and read to discover who was against him.

---"The face that launched a thousand ships"  is a reference to Helen of Troy. She was said to be so beautiful that, when she was abducted, a fleet of a thousand ships set sail to win her back from Paris, sparking the Trojan Wars.

---Teruo Tojo, the second son of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, became chairman of Mitsubishi Motors.

---You don't use boiling water with green tea. Optimal temperature is 160-180F.

--- As late as1850 most shoes were made on absolutely straight lasts, with no difference between the right and the left shoe.

---According to Greek historian Plutarch, in his “Life of Lycurgus,” the Spartans used long and heavy iron rods as their currency in hopes that it would discourage them from pursuing large amounts of wealth. This unusual currency was called “obeloi” and was supposedly so cumbersome that carrying multiple rods would require oxen.

---Despite the severity with which some contemporary English-speakers vehemently attack “incorrect” uses of the language, English used to belong to the people. In the formative years of the language, it was only spoken by “commoners,” while the English courts and aristocracy mostly spoke in French. 

--- From 1912 to 1948, the Olympics held competitions in the fine arts, with medals being awarded for architecture, literature, music, painting and sculpture.

---Humans started wearing shoes about 40,000 years ago, much earlier than previously thought, new anthropological research suggests.

---According to the WHO, Libya has the greatest number of traffic fatalities per 100,000 at over 73 per year.

---Polydactyly (extra digits) overall runs about one in 500 live births. 

---Smallpox, one of the deadliest diseases in history, was fortunately eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination campaign. It is impossible to tell how many people died from smallpox but only during the 20th century, the disease is estimated to have claimed from 300 to 500 million lives.

---Research by some scholars provides population estimates of the pre-contact Americas to be as high as 112 million in 1492, while others estimate the population to have been as low as 8 million.  

---Although many think of bed-wetting as a childhood problem, about 26 million American adults are affected by urinary incontinence.

---Finland has the highest percentage of female doctors at a bit over 50%.

---Montana has the highest road fatality rate in the US at 22 per 100,000

---The Yamato dynasty (the current line of emperors in Japan) is at least 1,500 years old, and much older if the first 29 Emperors actually existed.

---The city of Uruk, today considered the oldest in the world, was first settled in c. 4500 BCE and walled cities, for defence, were common by 2900 BCE throughout the region. This city is thought to have given its name to the nation in which it is currently located; Iraq.

---While the US has the greatest amount of debt than any other nation, as a percentage of GDP Japan leads that listing at 225% (US News and World Report)

---The greatest consumers of cheese are the French, who average 26.3 Kg per person per year.

---According to an article in the 11 January Washington Post, telemarketing was first used by Ford Motor Company who, in 1976, had a small army of 15,000 call over 20,000,000 numbers, resulting in the sale of 40,000 cars.

---Carlo Maria Cipolla, an economic historian, is famous for his essays about human stupidity, such as "The Basic Laws of Human Stupidity". He viewed stupid people as a group, more powerful by far than major organizations such as the Mafia and the industrial complex, which without regulations, leaders or manifesto nonetheless manages to operate to great effect and with incredible coordination.

These are Cipolla's five fundamental laws of stupidity:

  1. Always and inevitably each of us underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation.
  2. The probability that a given person is stupid is independent of any other characteristic possessed by that person.
  3. A person is stupid if they cause damage to another person or group of people without experiencing personal gain, or even worse causing damage to themselves in the process.
  4. Non-stupid people always underestimate the harmful potential of stupid people; they constantly forget that at any time anywhere, and in any circumstance, dealing with or associating themselves with stupid individuals invariably constitutes a costly error.
  5. A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person there is.